Modern History

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Selected Sources Sections Studying History Reformation Early Modern World Everyday Life Absolutism Constitutionalism Colonial North America Colonial Latin America Scientific Revolution Enlightenment Enlightened Despots American Independence French Revolution Industrial Revolution Romanticism Conservative Order Nationalism Liberalism 1848 19C Britain 19C France 19C Germany 19C Italy 19C West Europe 19C East Europe Early US US Civil War US Immigration 19C US Culture Canada Australia & New Zealand 19C Latin America Socialism Imperialism Industrial Revolution II Darwin, Freud 19C Religion World War I Russian Revolution Age of Anxiety Depression Fascism Nazism Holocaust World War II Bipolar World US Power US Society Western Europe Since 1945 Eastern Europe Since 1945 Decolonization Asia Since 1900 Africa Since 1945 Middle East Since 1945 20C Latin America Modern Social Movements Post War Western Thought Religion Since 1945 Modern Science Pop Culture 21st Century
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Search Page

From this page it is now possible to search quickly the local contents of the Internet Modern History Sourcebook (as well as of all the online Internet History Sourcebooks), or a selection of other historical electronic text sites, or the entire Web.

There are two ways to do this.

There is also information here on

The Fordham Search Engine

Go to the Fordham Search Page to use this option.

This will search only files on the Fordham server, but not linked documents. It helps to use the Boolean operators AND, OR, and NOT.

The engine will retrieve files from other Fordham pages, but it is a good way of search the texts online here.


Hotbot is one of the major search engines on the Internet. It is possible, as here to "tweak" it, so that it will search only files at specific websites. Here you have the option of linking directly to Hotbot's search engine, and searching only files at the Internet History Sourcebooks Project, files at the Sourcebooks and other major historical source text sites, or the entire Web. This is the most flexible option.

    • Choose SEARCH RANGE in first window [The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is the default]
    • Enter KEYWORDS in the second [Boolean operators work]
    • Select SEARCH
- H o t B o t -  Search  for 

This is a search made through the HOTBOT search engine. Some notes on this:

  • In the default, HOTBOT does search the full text of Internet History Sourcebooks Project documents, but will not search documents linked to from the project which are located off the Fordham web server.
  • HOTBOT may take a few weeks to re-index the Sourcebook site. As a result, new material will not be immediately available. Check the Additions page for new material.
  • HOTBOT requires that entire domains be searched. This means extra material will inevitably creep in.
  • Historical eText Sites will search the following domains:
    • The Internet History  Sourcebooks Project: [Medieval, Modern European]
    • ORB Main Site: [General Medieval]
    • Online Medieval and Classical Libary: [Medieval]
    • Christian Cassics Ethereal Library: [Early Christian]
    • New Advent:, [Early Christian, Aquinas]
    • Virginia Etext Center: [General Etexts]
    • St. Michael's Depot: [Church Councils]
    • Hanover College Historical Text Project: [General]
    • Eternal Word Television Network: [Roman Catholic Material]
    • American Universoty Catholic Files: [Early Christian]
    • Benedictine Pages: [Monastic Texts]
    • St. Pachomias Library: [Orthodox Text]
    • Wesley Center for Applied Theology: [noncanonical texts, Josephus]
    • University of Pennsylvania Site: [Christian, Late Antique Texts]
    • MIT Classics Archive: [Classical literature]
    • Islamic Library Project: [Muslim Literature]
    • Copt Net: [Coptic Texts]
    • Avesta Web: [Zoroastrian texts]
    • Online Books Page:
    • The Internet Public Library:
    • Historical Documents on the Internet:
    • CARRIE: An Electronic Library [At Ukans]:
    • Humanities Text Initiative: Resources [At Michigan]:
    • UVA Electronic Text Library [At UVA]:
    • Oxford Text Archive [At Oxford]: 
    • The New Bartleby: A National Digital Library:
    • Renascence Editions:
    • Eldritch Press: 
    • Eserver History:
    • The ETEXT Archives:
    • GASLIGHT electronic tex:
    • Paul Brians' Reader:
    • The Naked Word:
    • Library of Economic Thought:,,
    • University of Michigan Documents Center:
    • International Constitutional Law [At Wuerzburg]:
    • U.S. House of Representatives Internet Law Library:
    • Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics:
    • German Law Archive [At Oxford]:
    • Documents in Military History [At Hillsdale]:
    • CELT Corpus of Electronic Texts [At UCC]:
    • AmDocs: Documents for the Study of American History [At Kansas]:
    • Hypertext on American History from the colonial period until Modern Times [At RUG-NL]: 
    • Basic Readings In U.S. Democracy [At Civnet]:
    • American Memory [At National Digital Library/Library of Congress]:
    • National Archives andRecords Administration: Primary Sources and Activities:

    Some etext sites are not searchable via this engine, mainly because they lack individual domains.

Searching the Internet

The Web is vast and now that it contains more, and more diverse information, than any single printed source. This availability of information will only increase and is a truly splendid new tool to help in your research. To use the Web efficiently, the various search engines are essential. It is important to form your query words as clearly as possible. For instance, if you are interested in finding information on a particular musician, do not search for "music", but for a style [eg "jazz" or "gregorian chant"] or even a name ["abba", "charlie parker", "hildegard"].

Here are links to the best "wide area" search engines on the Web. Yahoo is best, I think, if you are looking for specialized websites. Altavista, Excite, and Hotbot all index many more documents. These engines will always turn up more references, but far more will be dross than with Yahoo. It is useful to start with Yahoo since it has a nice feature - once it tells you everything that it has found, it will automatically plug you in to the other search engines.

  • Yahoo!
    The best for web sites as opposed to specific documents.
  • Google
    Googel must now be the first choice for researchees since its search method tends to bring up the best links first.  Moreover it is easy to use, and best of all allows acces to its cache of documents! In other words, sometimes even if a text has disappeared from the net, you will still find it here.
  • HotBot
    The most flexible of the search engines - it lets you get 100 hits at a time.
  • AltaVista: Main Page
    Competes with Hotbot to be the most comprehensive search engine on the web.
  • LookSmart
    A sort of combination of Yahoo and Hotbot. It has its own list of commented on websites, but also plugs into Altavista.
  • Excite
    Some people love this search engine. I think it loads too much advertising onto your system.
  • Lycos
    Lycos seems to have lost much of its early lead.
  • Deja News
    Allows you to search messages to usenet/netnews.
  • Search for Lyrics
  • Other Engines
    The following are all online, and you might something useful there. I never do.

© This text is copyright. The specific electronic form, and any notes and questions are copyright. Permission is granted to copy the text, and to print out copies for personal and educational use. No permission is granted for commercial use. 

If any copyright has been infringed, this was unintentional. The possibility of a site such as this, as with other collections of electronic texts, depends on the large availability of public domain material from texts translated before 1920. [In the US, all texts issued before 1923 are now in the public domain (although later editing may be copyright). Texts published before 1964 may be in the public domain if copyright was not renewed after 28 years. This site seeks to abide by US copyright law: the copyright status of texts here outside the US may be different.] Efforts have been made to ascertain the copyright status of all texts on this site, although, occasionally, this has not been possible where older or non-US publishers seem to have ceased existence. Some of the recently translated texts on this site are copyright to the translators indicated in each document. These translators have in every case given permission for non-commercial reproduction. This site is intended for educational use. No representation is made about the copyright status of offsite links: note that for the Modern History Sourcebook, unlike the Medieval Sourcebook, many texts are offsite. Notification of copyright infringement will result in the immediate removal of a text until its status is resolved.

The Internet Modern History Sourcebook is part of the
Internet History Sourcebooks Project.


The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University.  Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 26 January 2023 [CV]