Ancient History

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Internet Ancient History Sourcebook:

Late Antiquity

See Main Page for a guide to all contents of all sections.

Late Antiquity

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Military Revolution and Government

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The End of the Roman Empire in the West
  • Ammianus Marcellinus (330-395 CE): The Battle of Adrianopole, 378 CE [At this Site]
  • Ammianus Marcellinus (c.330-395 CE): History, XIV.16: The Luxury of the Rich in Rome, c. 400 CE [At this Site]
  • Procopius of Caesarea (c.500-after 562 CE): Alaric's Sack of Rome, 410 CE, History of the Wars [written c. 550 CE], III.ii.7-39 [At this Site]
  • Procopius of Caesarea (c.500-after 562 CE): Gaiseric & The Vandal Conquest of North Africa, 406 - 477 CE, History of the Wars [written c. 550 CE], Book III, chapters iii-vii [At this Site]
  • Rutilius Numantius: On His Return, I.xi.47,  The Greatness of Rome in the Days of Ruin, 413CE [At this Site]
  • Jordanes (fl.c.550 CE): History of the Goths Chap. 38:  The Battle of ChalĂ´ns, 451 CE [At this Site]
    The Defeat of Attila.
  • 2ND Edward Gibbon: On the Fall of the Roman Empire [At this Site][added 7/2/98 to Rome page]
  • 2ND Bruce Bartlett: How Excessive Government Killed Ancient Rome, Cato Institute Journal 14: 2, Fall 1994 [At]
    An example of ancient history being seen through distinctly modern eyes! [Be wary of all such "explanations" which do not consider the survival of the Eastern Empire.]

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Late Ancient Philosophy

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Roman Mystery Religions

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End of Paganism
  • Julian ("the Apostate") (b.332-r.361-d.363): Letter to Arsacius, c. 360 [At Then Again]
  • Symmachus (c.340-c.402): Relation 3, 384 CE [At Calgary]
    Symmachus was the most prominent opponent of Christianity at his time. Here is his request to the Christian Emperors to restore the altar of victory to the Senate.
  • Ambrose of Milan (c.339-4 April 397): Response to Symmachus [ep. 17 and 18] [at Calgary]
  • Zosimus: Historia Nova [At Then Again]
    Theodosius II (r.375-95) bans the pagan rites and sacrifices.
  • 2ND James O'Donnell: The Demise of Paganism, Traditio 35 (1977):45-88 [At UPenn]

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Modern Perspectives on the End of Antiquity
  • Catastrophe?
  • Continuity?

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Dates of accession of material added since July 1998 can be seen in the New Additions page.. The date of inception was 4/8/1998.

Links to files at other site are indicated by [At some indication of the site name or location]. Locally available texts are marked by [At this Site].

WEB indicates a link to one of small number of high quality web sites which provide either more texts or an especially valuable overview.

The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook is part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project

The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University.  Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 26 January 2023 [CV]