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The Rule of St. Benedict, composed in Italy about 530 but based on earlier
compilations, came to define the cenobitic type monastic life that came to be accepted
throughout the West.
1. What sort of life do the monks lead? Why does Benedict intend it to be this way?
2. Why does Benedict think his way of life is the best way?
... We are about to found therefore a school for the Lord's service; in the
organization of which we trust that we shall ordain nothing severe and nothing burdensome.
But even if, the demands of justice dictating it, something a little irksome shall be the
result, for the purpose of amending vices or preserving charity; - thou shalt not
therefore, struck by fear, flee the way of salvation, which can not be entered upon except
through a narrow entrance. But as one's way of life and one's faith progresses, the heart
becomes broadened, and, with the unutterable sweetness of love, the way of the mandates of
the Lord is traversed. Thus, never departing from His guidance, continuing in the
monastery in his teaching until death, through patience we are made partakers in Christ's
passion, in order that we may merit to be companions in His kingdom.
1. Concerning the Kinds of Monks and Their Manner of Living.
It is manifest that there are four kinds of monks. The cenobites are the first kind;
that is, those living in a monastery, serving under a rule or an abbot. Then the second
kind is that of the anchorites; that is, the hermits-those who, not by the new fervour of
a conversion but by the long probation of life in a monastery, have learned to fight
against the devil, having already been taught by the solace of many. They, having been
well prepared in the army of brothers for the solitary fight of the hermit, being secure
now without the consolation of another, are able, God helping them, to fight with their
own hand or arm against the vices of the flesh or of their thoughts.
But a third very bad kind of monks are the sarabaites, approved by no rule, experience
being their teacher, as with the gold which is tried in the furnace. But, softened after
the manner of lead, keeping faith with the world by their works, they are known through
their tonsure to lie to God. These being shut up by twos or threes, or, indeed, alone,
without a shepherd, not in the Lord's but in their own sheep-folds-their law is the
satisfaction of their desires. For whatever they think good or choice, this they call
holy; and what they do not wish, this they consider unlawful. But the fourth kind of we
are about to found, therefore, a school for the monks is the kind which is called
gyratory. During their whole life they are guests, for three or four days at a time, in
the cells of the different monasteries, throughout the various provinces; always wandering
and never stationary, given over to the service of their own pleasures and the joys of the
palate, and in every way worse than the sarabaites. Concerning the most wretched way of
living of all such monks it is better to be silent than to speak. These things therefore
being omitted, let us proceed, with the aid of God, to treat of the best kind, the
22. How the Monks Shall Sleep.
They shall sleep separately in separate beds. They shall receive positions for their
beds, after the manner of their characters, according to the dispensation of their abbot.
If it can be done, they shall all sleep in one place. If, however, their number do not
permit it, they shall rest, by tens or twenties, with elders who will concern themselves
about them. A candle shall always be burning in that same cell until early in the morning.
They shall sleep clothed, and girt with belts or with ropes; and they shall not have their
knives at their sides while they sleep, lest perchance in a dream they should wound the
sleepers. And let the monks be always on the alert; and, when the signal is given, rising
without delay, let them hasten to mutually prepare themselves for the service of God with
all gravity and modesty, however. The younger brothers shall not have beds by themselves,
but interspersed among those of the elder ones. And when they rise for the service of God,
they shall exhort each other mutually with moderation on account of the excuses that those
who are sleepy are inclined to make.
39 Concerning the Amount of food
We believe, moreover, that, for the daily refection of the sixth as well as of the
ninth hour, two cooked dishes, on account of the infirmities of the different ones, are
enough for all tables: so that whoever, perchance, can not eat of one may partake of the
other. Therefore let two cooked dishes suffice for all the brothers: and, if it is
possible to obtain apples or growing vegetables, a third may be added. One full pound of
bread shall suffice for a day, whether there be one refection, or a breakfast and a
supper... But to younger boys the same quantity shall not be served, but less than that to
the older ones; moderation being observed in all things. But the eating of the flesh of
quadrupeds shall be abstained from altogether by every one, excepting alone the weak and
40. Concerning the Amount of Drink.
Each one has his own gift from God, the one in this way, the other in that. Therefore
it is with some hesitation that the amount of daily sustenance for others is fixed by us.
Nevertheless, in view of the weakness of the infirm we believe that a hemina [just less
than half a liter] of wine a day is enough for each one. Those moreover to whom God gives
the ability of bearing abstinence shall know that they will have their own reward. But the
prior shall judge if either the needs of the place, or labour or the heat of summer,
requires more; considering in all things lest satiety or drunkenness creep in. Indeed we
read that wine is not suitable for monks at all. But because, in our day, it is not
possible to persuade the monks of this, let us agree at least as to the fact that we
should not drink till we are sated, but sparingly...
55. Concerning Clothes and Shoes
Vestments shall be given to the brothers according to the quality of the places where
they dwell, or the temperature of the air. For in cold regions more is required; but in
warm, less. This, therefore, is a matter for the abbot to decide. We nevertheless consider
that for ordinary places there suffices for the monks a cowl and a gown apiece-the cowl,
in winter hairy, in summer plain or old-and a working garment, on account of their
labours. As clothing for the feet, shoes and boots.