Internet Medieval Sourcebook
Selected Sources: Intellectual Life
11th-12th Century Thought
- Legal Studies
- Philosophy: The Emergence of the Scholastic Approach
- Richer of Rheims: Journey to Chartres, 10th Century,
trans. M. Markowski [M-Markow@wcslc.edu].
- [Tierney 42, Geary 22] Anselm (1033-1109): Proof of the
Existence of God. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Anselm.
- Anselm (1033-1109): Proslogium, full text
- Gaunilo: In Behalf of the Fool, with Anselm's: Reply
Gaunilo's attack on the argument in the Proslogium, and Anselm's
- Anselm (1033-1109): Monologium, full text
- Anselm (1033-1109): Cur Deus Homo (Why God
Became Man) full text
- Anselm (1033-1109): Introduction to His Writings
- Anselm (1033-1109): Philosophers' Criticisms of
Anselm's Ontological Argument for the Being of God
- Adelard of Bath: Natural Questions, c.
1137, on the impact of Muslim science in the West.
- Theophilus: An Essay Upon Diverse Arts, c. 1125.
- [Tierney 43.3] Peter Abelard: Sic et Non (Yes and
No), 1120, short extracts.
Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism.
Peter Abelard: Sic et
Non, excerpts, [At Internet Archive, from Clinch Valley College]
- [Tierney 43.4] St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153): Letter to Abelard, copyrighted
Bernard of Clairvaux and Encyclopaedia Britannica
(9th Ed.): Saint Bernard of Clairvaux.
- Peter the Venerable vs. St. Bernard of Clairvaux: On
the Keeping of Serfs, c. 1120
- Peter Lombard: Sentences
- Alain of Lille (d.1203): The Plaint of Nature,
- Jewish Thinkers
- Judah Ha-Levi (ca 1075-1141): The Kuzari, also known as The Book of Argument and Proof in Defense of the Despised Faith (Kitab al
The entire first book of the Kuzari, a philosophical treatise written by the
Spanish Jewish philosopher and poet, Judah Ha-Levi. It is written in the form of a
dialogue, purportedly between the king of the Khazars and the representatives of various
belief systems, culminating with a rabbi.
- Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon, or Rambam): The
Thirteen Principles of Judaism.
- Maimonides: The 613 Mitzvot.
- Maimonides: The Laws and Basic Principles
of the Torah.
- Maimonides: The Laws Concerning Mashiach,
Chapters 11 & 12 of Hilchos Melachim from the Mishneh Torah of the Rambam.
- Maimonides: Oath of Maimonides.
- Intuitive Theology
- [Tierney 44] St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153): The Love of God, pub.dom. See Full text [At CCEL]
- [Geary 23] St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153): Sermon on the Song of Songs, copyrighted
- St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153): Apology.
- Abelard and Heloise
- Peter Abelard (1079-1142): Prologue to
Sic et Non, translated by Wendy Lewis
- [Tierney 43.1] Peter Abelard: History of My
Calamities [selections]. The full text is also available in English translation by Henry Adams Bellows and in Latin [At
Georgetown]; See also
Encyclopedia: Peter Abelard; and Eric Gans:
Chronicles of Love and Resentment - Abelard and Heloise [At UCLA].
- Fulk, Prior of Deuil: Letter to Peter Abelard,
(Epistola XIV), trans. William North, 11th century.
A letter to Abelard after his castration.
- [Tierney 43.2] Peter Abelard and Heloise: Letters, copyrighted but see next item.
- Heloise: Letter to Abelard, trans. C.K. Scott
Moncrief. The text is also available in Latin, available
via here 12/7/97, [At Georgetown]
Photographs of Tomb of
Abelard and Heloise, Père-Lachaise (Cemetery : Paris, France); and
Jean Vignaud: Abelard and
Heloise Surprised by the Abbot Fulbert (1819).
- [Tierney 43.5] Peter the Venerable: Letters to Heloise 1142, copyrighted
- The Discovery of the Individual?
A much discussed theory in recent years, put forward by Colin Morris in The
Discovery of the Individual, is that the "modern" idea of the individual
emerged in the twelfth century. This has not proved to be acceptable to all historians.
Nevertheless, some texts - such as those about Abelard and Heloise - have been taken to
represent something new. It is the writings of Guibert of Nogent which are, perhaps, of
most interest. For the first time since St. Augustine, we find in his Autobiography the sort of introspection which may indeed seem "modern".
- [Geary 24] Guibert of Nogent (1053-1124): Memoirs, copyrighted?, but see
- Guibert of Nogent (1053-1124): Autobiography, full
text, trans. C.C. Swinton Bland.
- Guibert of Nogent (1053-1124): On His Childhood,
Selections from his Autobiography.
13th-14th Century Scholasticism
- Educational Institutions
- Robert de Courçon: Statutes for the University of Paris,
1215 Courses in the Arts 1215.
Rules of the
University of Paris, 1215, [At UVA]
- [Tierney 77.1] Gregory IX: Statutes of the
University of Paris, 1231.
- Frederick II (r.1214-1250): Lictere Generales,
establishing the University of Naples, trans. Mario Spagnuolo, 1224
- Court Rolls of The Manor of Wakefield,
- [Tierney 77.2] University of Paris: Courses in Arts 1255, copyrighted
- University of Paris: Courses in Theology  and
- [Tierney 77.3] Bishop Stephen of Paris: Thirteen Condemned Errors, 1270, copyrighted - see next item.
- University of Paris: Condemnation of Errors,
- [Tierney 78.1] Life of Richard of Chichester: - a good student, copyrighted
- [Tierney 78.2] Alvarus Pelagius: The Plaint of the Church - on bad students
[c.1275-1349], copyrighted - see next item
- Jacques de Vitry: Life of the Students at Paris, 13th
- Medieval Students' Songs
- Rupert, Count Palatine: Foundation of the
University of Heidelberg, 1386
- Plantagenet, Richard: The
Statutes Ordained by Richard Duke of Gloucester, for the College of Middleham, July 4,
1478. [At R3]
[At U. Penn]
Used as textbook in teaching elementary Latin in the middle ages. Not by either of the two
famous Roman Catos.
- Theology and Philosophy
WEB Medieval Theologians [At Santiago]
Gary Macy's extensive online guide to Thirteenth century thinkers.
- [Tierney 77.4] Odofredus: Introduction to Course on Corpus Iuris Civilis c. 1250, copyrighted
WEB See Stephen Loughlin: St. Thomas Aquinas Page
- See also Walter Farrell: A Companion to
the Summa [at OP.Org]; and
Britannica (9th ed): Aquinas, Thomas [At CCEL]
- Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274):
Theologiae, full text, [At New Advent].
- [Tierney 79.1] Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): Reasons
in Proof of the Existence of God, 1270, from the Summa Theologiae, trans D.
Burr, or another version
- Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): Summa Contra Gentiles, with
some abridgement, trans. Joseph Rickaby 1905, full text, [At Maritain Center]
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): Catena Aurea: Patristic
Commentary on the Gospels: Matthew and Mark, full text, [At CCEL]
- Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): On the Nature of Law.
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): On The Principles of Nature,
trans Stephen Loughlin. [At Desales]
- Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): On Being and Essence (De
Ente et Essentia), trans. Robert T. Miller.
- [Geary 34.3a] Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): On the Eternity of the
World, trans. Robert T. Miller, [Diff. translation than Geary]
- [Geary 34.3a] Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): On the Eternality of the World [Summa
Contra Gentiles II: 31-38,], full text, inc. SCG II: 31-38, now available as Summa Contra Gentiles Part 1:
Of God and His Creatures. [At Maritain Center/Notre Dame].
- [Geary 34.1] Bonaventure (1217-1274): On the Eternality of the World [in II Sent. D.1,
a.1. q2, and other texts] copyrighted? See also
Catholic Encyclopedia: Bonaventure.
- [Tierney 79.2] Bonaventure (1217-1274): The Mind's Road to God, copyrighted
- Ibn Rushd (Averroës) (1126-1198 CE): Religion &
Philosophy, c. 1190. The text is On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy, or
in Arabic Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damina). Appended is an extract
from Kitab al-kashf`an manahij al-adilla.available 7/7/98
Ibn Rushd (Averroës) was a major influence on Western thinkers.
- [Geary 34.2] Siger of Brabant: On the Eternality of the World, copyrighted?
- Duns Scotus
- The following were off-site links to various late medieval philosophical texts
offered at a website in Australia. That website is no longer working so local copies are
now linked. [If anyone objects to this, please contact email@example.com]
- WEB Medieval Diplomatic and the Ars
Editions and Translations by Steven M. Wight of treatises on privileges, charter
doctrines and model charters in artes dictandi from Italy, France and Germany
Medieval Political Thought
- Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn Rushd (Averroës): Islamic
political philosophy. [Local copy]
- John of Salisbury: Policraticus IV.1-4:
On Princes and Tyrants
- John of Salisbury: Policraticus, Book
VI, chapter 24
- John of Paris: On Royal and Papal Power [Local copy]
- various texts.
- Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): On the Nature of Law.
- Geary 36] Marsiglio of Padua (d.1343): Defensor
Pacis: Selections from Text, 1324.
- [Tierney 81.3, Geary 36] Marsiglio of Padua (d.1343): Defensor
Pacis: Conclusions, 1324; Same Text with
Introduction also available, complete, and in a different version from Tierney. [Geary
has copyrighted selections from body of the text, chaps. 3 and 13.]
- Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527): The Prince, excerpts,
- Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527): The Prince, in
chapter files, full text, [At Bibliomania]
- Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527): The Prince,
1513, full text in HTML.
See also Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859): Essay On
- Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527): Republics
and Monarchies, Excerpt from Discourses I, 55
- Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527): The Ancients
and Liberty, Excerpt from Discourses II, 2
- Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527): Founding a
Republic, Excerpt from Discourses I, 9
- Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527): History
of Florence: Lorence de' Medici
Science and Technology
- WEB Internet History of
- Roger Bacon: On Experimental Science, 1268.
Roger Bacon: On
Experimental Science, from Opus Majus, 13th century [At UVA]
- Roger Bacon: Despair About Thirteenth Century Scholarship,
from Compendium Studii Philosophiae, 1271.
A Treatise from Salerno on Nutrition: De flore dietarum, in
Latin and Italian, [At Liber Liber]
- [Tierney 79] John Buridan: Questions [c.1290-c.1360], copyrighted
- [Tierney 79] Nicholas Oresme: Questions [1320-1382], copyrighted
- Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1340-1400): A Treatise on the
Astrolabe, c.1391, in Middle English.
Western European Literature
- Beowulf, 8th century, trans Francis Gummere [HTML,
or Beowulf (in Old English)
- [Tierney 50] The Song of Roland. c. 11th
- The Song of Roland, c.
11th Century, full texts, trans. Charles Scott Moncrief [At OMACL]
- The Song of Roland, c. 11th Century,
full texts, trans. John O'Hagan [Here]
In rhyming couplets!
- [Tierney 51] Troubadour Songs, copyrighted
- [Tierney 52] Goliardic Literature, some copyrighted - see below
- The Archpoet: Confession of Golias.
- [Tierney 53] Our Lady's Tumbler, copyrighted
- Chrétien de Troyes: Lancelot, c. 1170,
An example of medieval romance.
- [Tierney 54] Andreas Capellanus: The Idea of Courtly Love, copyrighted [see next items]
- Andreas Capellanus: The Art of Courtly Love, (btw.
- Amleth, Prince of Denmark, From the Gesta
Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus, c.1185. [At Pitt]
NOTES: copyrighted means the text is not available for free distribution. In
some cases alternate versions are available, and are working through the pipeline. Dates of accession of material can be seen in the New Accessions Page. The date of inception was 1/20/1996. Links to files at other site are indicated by [At some indication of the site name or
location]. No indication means that the text file is local. WEB indicates a link to one of small
number of high quality web sites which provide either more texts or an especially valuable