Internet Medieval Sourcebook
Selected Sources: Islam
- Ancient Accounts of Arabia
Accounts from Herodotus, Strabo, Dio Cassius, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Procopius.
- Pre-Islamic Arabia: The Hanged Poems, before
The Pre-Islamic poems of Imru-Ul-Quais, Antar, and Zuhair which Muhammad allowed to remain
hanging in the Ka'aba.
Muhammad and Foundations -
to 632 CE
Islamic Expansion and
Empire - to 750 CE
- Al-Baladhuri: The Battle of The Yarmuk and After, 636
- Accounts of the Arab Conquest of Egypt, 642 CE
The Coptic account from The History of The Patriarchs of Alexandria and an Arab
account - Al-Baladhuri: The Conquest of Alexandria
- The Pact of Umar, 7th-9th Century?
- Pact of Umar (another
version), 7th-9th century CE?
- Ibn Abd-el-Hakem: The Islamic Conquest of Spain .
- Al Maggari: Tarik's Address to His Soldiers, 711 CE,
from The Breath of Perfumes
- Anonymous Arab Chronicler: The Battle of Poitiers
(Tours), 732 CE
- Arabs, Franks, and the Battle of Poitiers (Tours): Three
Accounts, 732 CE
- Abû Ûthmân al-Jâhiz: From The Essays, c.
Arab Muslim views on the Zanj (Black Africans)
Ibn Fadlan: Risala 921 CE [At
Ibn Fadlan was an Arab chronicler. In 921 C.E., the Caliph sent Ibn Fadlan with an embassy
to the King of the Bulgars of the Middle Volga. Ibn Fadlan wrote an account of his
journeys with the embassy, called a Risala. This Risala is of great value as a
history, although it is clear in some places that inaccuracies and Ibn Fadlan's own
prejudices have slanted the account to some extent.
Nasir-i-Khusraw (1046-1052): Book
of Travels (Safarnama) [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]
Benjamin of Tudela (1160-1173): The Itinerary of Benjamin of
Tudela Critical Text, Translation and Commentary by Marcus Nathan Adler. [At Traveling
to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]
- Ibn Battuta (1307-1377 CE): Travels in Asia and
- Ibn Battuta (1307-1377 CE): Travels, selections.
The Abbasid Caliphate -
after 750 CE
- Ibn Rushd (Averroës) (1126-1198 CE): Religion &
Philosophy, c. 1190 CE. The text is On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy,
or in Arabic Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damina). Appended is an
extract from Kitab al-kashf`an manahij al-adilla.
- Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (973-1037): On Medicine,
c. 1020 CE
Al-Andalus: Muslim Spain
- See Ancient History
Sourcebook: Near East for pre-Islamic Persian texts.
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): The
Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (first edition), trans. by Edward FitzGerald (page images [At
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE):: The Rubiayat, c.
1120 CE, or another version, both editions
translated by Edward Fitzgerald.
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): The Rubaiyat, c.
This is not the famous translation by Edward Fitgerald, but a more complete version by
E. H. Whinfield.
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): In Praise of Wine,
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): The Vanity of Regret,
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): The Cup, c. 1110
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): Profession of Faith,
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): The Wisdom of the
Supreme, c. 1120
- Nizami (1140-1203 CE): Khosru & Shireen,
Nizami, Rumi and Jami (belowt) are the great classical poets of Muslim Persia.
- Sa'di (1184-1292 CE): Gulistan,
1258 CE, Full text, in short sections. [At MIT]
Sa'di (1184-1292 CE): Gulistan, 1258 CE,
Full text of Persian prose/poetry text with significant homoerotic content.
- Sa'di (1184-1292 CE): The Gulistan, c. 1256 CE.
translation by James Ross (1890)
- Sa'di (1184-1292 CE): The Bustan
- Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1207-1273 CE): The Masnavi,
excerpts, c. 1250 CE
- Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1207-1273 CE): The Fairest Land,
c. 1250 CE
- Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1207-1273 CE): Poems from the Divan-I
Shams-I Tabriz, c. 1270 CE
- Hafiz (1325-1389 CE): Verses in Praise of God, c.
- Jami (114-1492 CE): Joseph and Zuleika, c. 1470 CE
- Ibn al-Athir: On The Tatars, 1220-1221CE
The effects of the Mongols in Persia
Egypt and North Africa
Muslim Religious Development
- The Sunni Tradition
- The Shia Tradition
- Relations With Other Religions
- Alpamysh, a Central Asian, Turkic epic, [At
Full text of H.B. Paksoy, ALPAMYSH Central Asian Identity under Russian Rule (Hartford, Connecticut: AACAR, 1989), including translation
- The Legends & Poetry of The Turks,
- Old Turkish Tales: The Queen of Night
- Sidi Ali Reis (16th Century CE): Mirat ul Memalik (The
Mirror of Countries), 1557 CE
A Turkish traveler's account of the world of India and the Middle East.
- The Status of Jews
and Christians in Muslim Lands, 1772
A question on the position of Jews in Islam, and the answer of the Shaikh Hasan Al
Kafrawi, The Shafiite [Professor of canon law in Cairo, d. 1788]
NOTES: copyrighted means the text is not available for free distribution. In
some cases alternate versions are available, and are working through the pipeline. Dates of accession of material can be seen in the New Accessions Page. The date of inception was 1/20/1996. Links to files at other site are indicated by [At some indication of the site name or
location]. No indication means that the text file is local. WEB indicates a link to one of
small number of high quality web sites which provide either more texts or an especially
The Internet Medieval Sourcebook participates in
ORB, the Online Reference Book for
created 1996: last revised 3/21/2007