MODERN HISTORY SOURCEBOOK CRIB SHEET
Late 19th Century Science and Culture
[Note: Crib Sheets are meant as review aids for a particular
period/theme. They are not complete overviews!]
Context of Cultural Change Knowledge and literature now more widespread:
Realism in Literature
- Large reading public
- state education
- cheap newspapers eg. Daily Mail in England
- Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) Madame Bovary 1857
- George Eliot (1819-1880) Adam Bede 1859
- Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Discovers bacteria 1868.
- Vaccination against Rabies 1885.
- Joseph Lister (1827-1912) begins sterilising wounds.
- Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) - "survival of the
- Charles Darwin (1809-1882),
The Origin of the Species 1859, The Descent of Man 1871
- Darwinian Evolution - Nature "red in tooth and claw".
- Social Darwinism [ref. Herbert Spencer, Eugenics
- Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) - Genetics
- Albert Einstein (1879-1955), 1905 General Theory of Relativity
The Crisis of Humanism
- Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - Psychoanalysis
- Tripartite division of the self - Ego, Id, Superego
- sublimation of sexual energy for civilization.
The Roman Church
- Auguste Comte (1798-1857) The Positive Philosophy 1830-1842
- Fredrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) Beyond Good and Evil 1886
- Bertrand Russell: "Humanity is just an accidental assembly
of atoms at the present time, which will separate in the future".
Do people lack all free will - are their actions predetermined
by their genetic make-up, or their psychological background, or do people have a real opportunity to make an impact on the world,
and to be responsible for their actions?
Spirituality and Marian Apparitions
- Pius IX (1846-1878)
Immaculate Conception defined 1856
The Syllabus of Errors 1864
Vatican I 1870 - Papal Infallibility.
- Leo XIII (1878-1903),
Rerum Novarum 1891.
- St. Pius X (1903-1914)
Code of Canon Law 1911.
- John Henry Newman.
- Lourdes - 1858 - St. Bernadette:,
- Fatima - 1911., "Devotional Catholicism"
in the United States
© 1997, Paul Halsall, email@example.com