Some months ago I published a magazine article descriptive of a remarkable scene in the
Imperial Parliament in Vienna. Since then I have received from Jews in America several
letters of inquiry. They were difficult letters to answer, for they were not very
definite. But at last I have received a definite one. It is from a lawyer, and he really
asks the questions which the other writers probably believed they were asking. By help of
this text I will do the best I can to publicly answer this correspondent, and also the
others - at the same time apologizing for having failed to reply privately. The lawyer's
letter reads as follows:
I have read 'Stirring Times in Austria.' One point in particular is of vital import to
not a few thousand people, including myself, being a point about which I have often wanted
to address a question to some disinterested person. The show of military force in the
Austrian Parliament, which precipitated the riots, was not introduced by any Jew. No Jew
was a member of that body. No Jewish question was involved in the Ausgleich or in the
language proposition. No Jew was insulting anybody. In short, no Jew was doing any
mischief toward anybody whatsoever. In fact, the Jews were the only ones of the nineteen
different races in Austria which did not have a party - they are absolutely
Yet in your article you say that in the rioting which followed, all classes of people
were unanimous only on one thing, viz., in being against the Jews. Now will you kindly
tell me why, in your judgment, the Jews have thus ever been, and are even now, in these
days of supposed intelligence, the butt of baseless, vicious animosities? I dare say that
for centuries there has been no more quiet, undisturbing, and well-behaving citizen, as a
class, than that same Jew. It seems to me that ignorance and fanaticism cannot alone
account for these horrible and unjust persecutions.
"Tell me, therefore, from your vantage-point of cold view, what in your mind is
the cause. Can American Jews do anything to correct it either in America or abroad? Will
it ever come to an end? Will a Jew be permitted to live honestly, decently, and peaceably
like the rest of mankind? What has become of the Golden Rule?" I will begin by saying
that if I thought myself prejudiced against the Jew, I should hold it fairest to leave
this subject to a person not crippled in that way. But I think I have no such prejudice. A
few years ago a Jew observed to me that there was no uncourteous reference to his people
in my books, and asked how it happened. It happened because the disposition was lacking. I
am quite sure that (bar one) I have no race prejudices, and I think I have no color
prejudices nor caste prejudices nor creed prejudices. Indeed, I know it.
I can stand any society. All that I care to know is that a man is a human being - that
is enough for me; he can't be any worse. I have no special regard for Satan; but I can at
least claim that I have no prejudice against him. It may even be that I lean a little his
way, on account of his not having a fair show.
All religions issue bibles against him, and say the most injurious things about him,
but we never hear his side. We have none but the evidence for the prosecution, and yet we
have rendered the verdict. To my mind, this is irregular. It is un-English; it is
un-American; it is French. Without this precedent Dreyfus could not have been condemned.
Of course Satan has some kind of a case, it goes without saying. It may be a poor one,
but that is nothing; that can be said about any of us. As soon as I can get at the facts I
will undertake his rehabilitation myself, if I can find an unpolitic publisher. It is a
thing which we ought to be willing to do for any one who is under a cloud. We may not pay
him reverence, for that would be indiscreet, but we can at least respect his talents.
A person who has for untold centuries maintained the imposing position of spiritual
head of four-fifths of the human race, and political head of the whole of it, must be
granted the possession of executive abilities of the loftiest order. In his large presence
the other popes and politicians shrink to midges for the microscope. I would like to see
him. I would rather see him and shake him by the tail than any other member of the
In the present paper I shall allow myself to use the word Jew as if it stood for both
religion and race. It is handy; and, besides, that is what the term means to the general
world. In the above letter one notes these points:
1. The Jew is a well-behaved citizen.
2. Can ignorance and fanaticism alone account for his unjust treatment?
3. Can Jews do anything to improve the situation?
4. The Jews have no party; they are non-participants.
5. Will the persecution ever come to an end?
6. What has become of the Golden Rule?
Point No. 1.
We must grant proposition No. 1 for several sufficient reasons. The Jew is not a
disturber of the peace of any country. Even his enemies will concede that. He is not a
loafer, he is not a sot, he is not noisy, he is not a brawler nor a rioter, he is not
quarrelsome. In the statistics of crime his presence is conspicuously rare - in all
countries. With murder and other crimes of violence he has but little to do: he is a
stranger to the hangman. In the police court's daily long roll of "assaults" and
"drunk and disorderlies" his name seldom appears.
That the Jewish home is a home in the truest sense is a fact which no one will dispute.
The family is knitted together by the strongest affections; its members show each other
every due respect; and reverence for the elders is an inviolate law of the house. The Jew
is not a burden on the charities of the state nor of the city; these could cease from
their functions without affecting him.
When he is well enough, he works; when he is incapacitated, his own people take care of
him. And not in a poor and stingy way, but with a fine and large benevolence. His race is
entitled to be called the most benevolent of all the races of men. A Jewish beggar is not
impossible, perhaps; such a thing may exist, but there are few men that can say they have
seen that spectacle. The Jew has been staged in many uncomplimentary forms, but, so far as
I know, no dramatist has done him the injustice to stage him as a beggar. Whenever a Jew
has real need to beg, his people save him from the necessity of doing it. The charitable
institutions of the Jews are supported by Jewish money, and amply. The Jews make no noise
about it; it is done quietly; they do not nag and pester and harass us for contributions;
they give us peace, and set us an example - an example which we have not found ourselves
able to follow; for by nature we are not free givers, and have to be patiently and
persistently hunted down in the interest of the unfortunate.
These facts are all on the credit side of the proposition that the Jew is a good and
orderly citizen. Summed up, they certify that he is quiet, peaceable, industrious,
unaddicted to high crimes and brutal dispositions; that his family life is commendable;
that he is not a burden upon public charities; that he is not a beggar; that in
benevolence he is above the reach of competition. These are the very quint-essentials of
good citizenship. If you can add that he is as honest as the average of his neighbors -
But I think that question is affirmatively answered by the fact that he is a successful
The basis of successful business is honesty; a business cannot thrive where the parties
to it cannot trust each other. In the matter of numbers of the Jew counts for little in
the overwhelming population of New York; but that his honesty counts for much is
guaranteed by the fact that the immense wholesale business houses of Broadway, from the
Battery to Union Square, is substantially in his hands. I suppose that the most
picturesque example in history of a trader's trust in his fellow-trader was one where it
was not Christian trusting Christian, but Christian trusting Jew.
That Hessian Duke who used to sell his subjects to George III. to fight George
Washington with got rich at it; and by-and-by, when the wars engendered by the French
Revolution made his throne too warm for him, he was obliged to fly the country. He was in
a hurry, and had to leave his earnings behind - $9,000,000. He had to risk the money with
some one without security. He did not select a Christian, but a Jew - a Jew of only modest
means, but of high character; a character so high that it left him lonesome - Rothschild
of Frankfort. Thirty years later, when Europe had become quiet and safe again, the Duke
came back from overseas, and the Jew returned the loan, with interest added.
[Footnote *: Here is another piece of picturesque history; and it reminds us
that shabbiness and dishonesty are not the monopoly of any race or creed, but are merely
"Congress has passed a bill to pay $379.56 to Moses Pendergrass, of
Libertyville, Missouri. The story of the reason of this liberality is pathetically
interesting, and shows the sort of pickle that an honest man may get into who undertakes
to do an honest job of work for Uncle Sam. In 1886 Moses Pendergrass put in a bid for the
contract to carry the mail on the route from Knob Lick to Libertyville and Coffman, thirty
miles a day, from July 1, 1887, for one year. He got the postmaster at Knob Lick to write
the letter for him, and while Moses intended that his bid should be $400, his scribe
carelessly made it $4. Moses got the contract, and did not find out about the mistake
until the end of the first quarter, when he got his first pay. When he found at what rate
he was working he was sorely cast down, and opened communication with the Post-Office
The department informed him that he must either carry out his contract or throw
it up, and that if he threw it up his bondsmen would have to pay the government $1459.85
damages. So Moses carried out his contract, walked thirty miles every week-day for a year,
and carried the mail, and received for his labor $4 - or, to be accurate, $6.84; for, the
route being extended after his bid was accepted, the pay was proportionately increased.
Now, after ten years, a bill was finally passed to pay to Moses the difference between
what he earned in that unlucky year and what he received."
The Sun, which tells the above story, says that bills were introduced in three
or four Congresses for Moses' relief, and that committees repeatedly investigated his
claim. It took six Congresses, containing in their persons the compressed virtues of
70,000,000 of people, and cautiously and carefully giving expression to those virtues in
the fear of God and the next election, eleven years to find out some way to cheat a
fellow-Christian out of about $13 on his honestly executed contract, and out of nearly
$300 due him on its enlarged terms. And they succeeded.
During the same time they paid out $1,000,000,000 in pensions - a third of it
unearned and undeserved. This indicates a splendid all-around competency in theft, for it
starts with farthings, and works its industries all the way up to ship-loads. It may be
possible that the Jews can beat this, but the man that bets on it is taking chances.]
The Jew has his other side. He has some discreditable ways, though he has not a
monopoly of them, because he cannot get entirely rid of vexatious Christian competition.
We have seen that he seldom transgresses the laws against crimes of violence. Indeed, his
dealings with courts are almost restricted to matters connected with commerce. He has a
reputation for various small forms of cheating, and for practising oppressive usury, and
for burning himself out to get the insurance, and for arranging cunning contracts which
leave him an exit but lock the other man in, and for smart evasions which find him safe
and comfortable just within the strict letter of the law, when court and jury know very
well that he has violated the spirit of it.
He is a frequent and faithful and capable officer in the civil service, but he is
charged with an unpatriotic disinclination to stand by the flag as a soldier - like the
Christian Quaker. Now if you offset these discreditable features by the creditable ones
summarized in a preceding paragraph beginning with the words, "These facts are all on
the credit side," and strike a balance, what must the verdict be? This, I think:
that, the merits and demerits being fairly weighed and measured on both sides, the
Christian can claim no superiority over the Jew in the matter of good citizenship. Yet in
all countries, from the dawn of history, the Jew has been persistently and implacably
hated, and with frequency persecuted.
Point No. 2.
"Can fanaticism alone account for this?" Years ago I used to think that it
was responsible for nearly all of it, but latterly I have come to think that this was an
error. Indeed, it is now my conviction that it is responsible for hardly any of it. In
this connection I call to mind Genesis, chapter xlvii. We have all thoughtfully - or
unthoughtfully - read the pathetic story of the years of plenty and the years of famine in
Egypt, and how Joseph, with that opportunity, made a corner in broken hearts, and the
crusts of the poor, and human liberty - a corner whereby he took a nation's money all
away, to the last penny; took a nation's livestock all away, to the last hoof; took a
nation's land away, to the last acre; then took the nation itself, buying it for bread,
man by man, woman by woman, child by child, till all were slaves; a corner which took
everything, left nothing; a corner so stupendous that, by comparison with it, the most
gigantic corners in subsequent history are but baby things, for it dealt in hundreds of
millions of bushels, and its profits were reckonable by hundreds of millions of dollars,
and it was a disaster so crushing that its effects have not wholly disappeared from Egypt
to-day, more than three thousand years after the event.
Is it presumable that the eye of Egypt was upon Joseph the foreign Jew all this time? I
think it likely. Was it friendly? We must doubt it. Was Joseph establishing a character
for his race which would survive long in Egypt? and in time would his name come to be
familiarly used to express that character - like Shylock's? It is hardly to be doubted.
Let us remember that this was centuries before the crucifixion. I wish to come down
eighteen hundred years later and refer to a remark made by one of the Latin historians. I
read it in a translation many years ago, and it comes back to me now with force. It was
alluding to a time when people were still living who could have seen the Savior in the
flesh. Christianity was so new that the people of Rome had hardly heard of it, and had but
confused notions of what it was.
The substance of the remark was this: Some Christians were persecuted in Rome through
error, they being "mistaken for Jews." The meaning seems plain. These pagans had
nothing against Christians, but they were quite ready to persecute Jews. For some reason
or other they hated a Jew before they even knew what a Christian was. May I not assume,
then, that the persecution of Jews is a thing which antedates Christianity and was not
born of Christianity? I think so.
What was the origin of the feeling? When I was a boy, in the back settlements of the
Mississippi Valley, where a gracious and beautiful Sunday-school simplicity and
unpracticality prevailed, the "Yankee" (citizen of the New England States) was
hated with a splendid energy. But religion had nothing to do with it. In a trade, the
Yankee was held to be about five times the match of the Westerner. His shrewdness, his
insight, his judgment, his knowledge, his enterprise, and his formidable cleverness in
applying these forces were frankly confessed, and most competently cursed.
In the cotton States, after the war, the simple and ignorant negroes made the crops for
the white planter on shares. The Jew came down in force, set up shop on the plantation,
supplied all the negro's wants on credit, and at the end of the season was proprietor of
the negro's share of the present crop and of part of his share of the next one. Before
long, the whites detested the Jew, and it is doubtful if the negro loved him.
The Jew is being legislated out of Russia. The reason is not concealed. The movement
was instituted because the Christian peasant and villager stood no chance against his
commercial abilities. He was always ready to lend money on a crop, and sell vodka and
other necessaries of life on credit while the crop was growing. When settlement day came
he owned the crop; and next year or year after he owned the farm, like Joseph.
In the dull and ignorant England of John's time everybody got into debt to the Jew. He
gathered all lucrative enterprises into his hands; he was the king of commerce; he was
ready to be helpful in all profitable ways; he even financed crusades for the rescue of
the Sepulchre. To wipe out his account with the nation and restore business to its natural
and incompetent channels he had to be banished the realm.
For the like reasons Spain had to banish him four hundred years ago, and Austria about
a couple of centuries later. In all the ages Christian Europe has been obliged to curtail
his activities. If he entered upon a mechanical trade, the Christian had to retire from
it. If he set up as a doctor, he was the best one, and he took the business. If he
exploited agriculture, the other farmers had to get at something else. Since there was no
way to successfully compete with him in any vocation, the law had to step in and save the
Christian from the poor-house.
Trade after trade was taken away from the Jew by statute till practically none was
left. He was forbidden to engage in agriculture; he was forbidden to practise law; he was
forbidden to practise medicine, except among Jews; he was forbidden the handicrafts. Even
the seats of learning and the schools of science had to be closed against this tremendous
Still, almost bereft of employments, he found ways to make money, even ways to get
rich. Also ways to invest his takings well, for usury was not denied him. In the hard
conditions suggested, the Jew without brains could not survive, and the Jew with brains
had to keep them in good training and well sharpened up, or starve. Ages of restriction to
the one tool which the law was not able to take from him - his brain - have made that tool
singularly competent; ages of compulsory disuse of his hands have atrophied them, and he
never uses them now.
This history has a very, very commercial look, a most sordid and practical commercial
look, the business aspect of a Chinese cheap-labor crusade. Religious prejudices may
account for one part of it, but not for the other nine. Protestants have persecuted
Catholics, but they did not take their livelihoods away from them. The Catholics have
persecuted the Protestants with bloody and awful bitterness, but they never closed
agriculture and the handicrafts against them. Why was that? That has the candid look of
genuine religious persecution, not a trade-union boycott in a religious disguise.
The Jews are harried and obstructed in Austria and Germany, and lately in France; but
England and America give them an open field and yet survive. Scotland offers them an
unembarrassed field too, but there are not many takers. There are a few Jews in Glasgow,
and one in Aberdeen; but that is because they can't earn enough to get away. The Scotch
pay themselves that compliment, but it is authentic.
I feel convinced that the Crucifixion has not much to do with the world's attitude
towards the Jew; that the reasons for it are older than that event, as suggested by
Egypt's experience and by Rome's regret for having persecuted an unknown quantity called a
Christian, under the mistaken impression that she was merely persecuting a Jew. Merely a
Jew - a skinned eel who was used to it, presumably.
I am persuaded that in Russia, Austria, and Germany nine-tenths of the hostility to the
Jew comes from the average Christian's inability to compete successfully with the average
Jew in business - in either straight business or the questionable sort. In Berlin, a few
years ago, I read a speech which frankly urged the expulsion of the Jews from Germany; and
the agitator's reason was as frank as his proposition.
It was this: that eighty-five per cent. of the successful lawyers of Berlin were Jews,
and that about the same percentage of the great and lucrative businesses of all sorts in
Germany were in the hands of the Jewish race! Isn't it an amazing confession? It was but
another way of saying that in a population of 48,000,000, of whom only 500,000 were
registered as Jews, eight-five per cent. of the brains and honesty of the whole was lodged
in the Jews.
I must insist upon the honesty - it is an essential of successful business, taken by
and large. Of course it does not rule out rascals entirely, even among Christians, but it
is a good working rule, nevertheless. The speaker's figures may have been inexact, but the
motive of persecution stands out as clear as day. The man claimed that in Berlin the
banks, the newspapers, the theatres, the great mercantile, shipping, mining, and
manufacturing interests, the big army and city contracts, the tramways, and pretty much
all other properties of high value, and also the small businesses, were in the hands of
He said the Jew was pushing the Christian to the wall all along the line; that it was
all a Christian could do to scrape together a living; and that the Jew must be banished,
and soon - there was no other way of saving the Christian.
Here in Vienna, last autumn, an agitator said that all these disastrous details were
true of Austria-Hungary also; and in fierce language he demanded the expulsion of the
Jews. When politicians come out without a blush and read the baby act in this frank way,
unrebuked, it is a very good indication that they have a market back of them, and know
where to fish for votes. You note the crucial point of the mentioned agitation; the
argument is that the Christian cannot compete with the Jew, and that hence his very bread
is in peril. To human beings this is a much more hate-inspiring thing than is any detail
connected with religion.
With most people, of a necessity, bread and meat take first rank, religion second. I am
convinced that the persecution of the Jew is not due in any large degree to religious
prejudice. No, the Jew is a money-getter; and in getting his money he is a very serious
obstruction to less capable neighbors who are on the same quest. I think that that is the
In estimating worldly values the Jew is not shallow, but deep. With precocious wisdom
he found out in the morning of time that some men worship rank, some worship heroes, some
worship power, some worship God, and that over these ideals they dispute and cannot unite
- but that they all worship money; so he made it the end and aim of his life to get it.
He was at it in Egypt thirty-six centuries ago; he was at it in Rome when that
Christian got persecuted by mistake for him; he has been at it ever since. The cost to him
has been heavy; his success has made the whole human race his enemy - but it has paid, for
it has brought him envy, and that is the only thing which men will sell both soul and body
He long ago observed that a millionaire commands respect, a two-millionaire homage, a
multi-millionaire the deepest deeps of adoration. We all know that feeling; we have seen
it express itself. We have noticed that when the average man mentions the name of a
multi-millionaire he does it with that mixture in his voice of awe and reverence and lust
which burns in a Frenchman's eye when it falls on another man's centime.
Point No. 3.
"Can Jews do anything to improve the situation?" I think so. If I may make a
suggestion without seeming to be trying to teach my grandmother how to suck eggs, I will
offer it. In our days we have learned the value of combination. We apply it everywhere -
in railway systems, in trusts, in trade unions, in Salvation Armies, in minor politics, in
major politics, in European Concerts. Whatever our strength may be, big or little, we
organize it. We have found out that that is the only way to get the most out of it that is
in it. We know the weakness of individual sticks, and the strength of the concentrated
Suppose you try a scheme like this, for instance. In England and America put every Jew
on the census-book as a Jew (in case you have not been doing that). Get up volunteer
regiments composed of Jews solely, and, when the drum beats, fall in and go to the front,
so as to remove the reproach that you have few Massenas among you, and that you feed on a
country but don't like to fight for it. Next, in politics, organize you strength, band
together, and deliver the casting vote where you can, and, where you can't, compel as good
terms as possible.
You huddle to yourselves already in all countries, but you huddle to no sufficient
purpose, politically speaking. You do not seem to be organized, except for your charities.
There you are omnipotent; there you compel your due of recognition - you do not have to
beg for it. It shows what you can do when you band together for a definite purpose. And
then from America and England you can encourage your race in Austria, France, and Germany,
and materially help it.
It was a pathetic tale that was told by a poor Jew in Galicia a fortnight ago during
the riots, after he had been raided by the Christian peasantry and despoiled of everything
he had. He said his vote was of no value to him, and he wished he could be excused from
casting it, for, indeed, casting it was a sure damage to him, since no matter which party
he voted for, the other party would come straight and take its revenge out of him.
Nine per cent. of the population of the empire, these Jews, and apparently they cannot
put a plank into any candidate's platform! If you will send our Irish lads over here I
think they will organize your race and change the aspect of the Reichsrath.
You seem to think that the Jews take no hand in politics here, that they are
"absolutely non-participants." I am assured by men competent to speak that this
is a very large error, that the Jews are exceedingly active in politics all over the
empire, but that they scatter their work and their votes among the numerous parties, and
thus lose the advantages to be had by concentration. I think that in America they scatter
too, but you know more about that than I do.
Speaking of concentration, Dr. Herzl has a clear insight into the value of that. Have
you heard of his plan? He wishes to gather the Jews of the world together in Palestine,
with a government of their own - under the suzerainty of the Sultan, I suppose. At the
Convention of Berne, last year, there were delegates from everywhere, and the proposal was
received with decided favor.
I am not the Sultan, and I am not objecting; but if that concentration of the
cunningest brains in the world were going to be made in a free country (bar Scotland), I
think it would be politic to stop it. It will not be well to let the race find out its
strength. If the horses knew theirs, we should not ride any more.
Point No. 4.
"The Jews have no party; they are non-participants." Perhaps you have let the
secret out and given yourself away. It seems hardly a credit to the race that it is able
to say that; or to you, sir, that you can say it without remorse; more than you should
offer it as a plea against maltreatment, injustice, and oppression. Who gives the Jew the
right, who gives any race the right, to sit still, in a free country, and let somebody
else look after its safety?
The oppressed Jew was entitled to all pity in the former times under brutal
autocracies, for he was weak and friendless, and had no way to help his case. But he has
ways now, and he has had them for a century, but I do not see that he has tried to make
serious use of them. When the Revolution set him free in France it was an act of grace -
the grace of other people; he does not appear in it as a helper. I do not know that he
helped when England set him free. Among the Twelve Sane Men of France who have stepped
forward with great Zola at their head to fight (and win, I hope and believe ^*) the battle
for the most infamously misused Jew of modern times, do you find a great or rich or
illustrious Jew helping?
In the United States he was created free in the beginning - he did not need to help, of
course. In Austria and Germany and France he has a vote, but of what considerable use is
it to him? He doesn't seem to know how to apply it to the best effect. With all his
splendid capacities and all his fat wealth he is to-day not politically important in any
country. In America, as early as 1854, the ignorant Irish hod-carrier, who had a spirit of
his own and a way of exposing it to the weather, made it apparent to all that he must be
politically reckoned with; yet fifteen years before that we hardly knew what an Irishman
As an intelligent force and numerically, he has always been away down, but he has
governed the country just the same. It was because he was organized. It made his vote
valuable - in fact, essential.
You will say the Jew is everywhere numerically feeble. That is nothing to the point -
with the Irishman's history for an object-lesson. But I am coming to your numerical
feebleness presently. In all parliamentary countries you could no doubt elect Jews to the
legislatures - and even one member in such a body is sometimes a force which counts. How
deeply have you concerned yourselves about this in Austria, France, and Germany? Or even
in America, for that matter? You remark that the Jews were not to blame for the riots in
this Reichsrath here, and you add with satisfaction that there wasn't one in that body.
That is not strictly correct; if it were, would it not be in order for you to explain it
and apologize for it, not try to make a merit of it?
But I think that the Jew was by no means in as large force there as he ought to have
been, with his chances. Austria opens the suffrage to him on fairly liberal terms, and it
must surely be his own fault that he is so much in the background politically. As to your
numerical weakness. I mentioned some figures awhile ago - 500,000 - as the Jewish
population of Germany. I will add some more - 6,000,000 in Russia, 5,000,000 in Austria,
250,000 in the United States. I take them from memory; I read them in the Cyclopaedia
Britannica ten or twelve years ago. Still, I am entirely sure of them.
If those statistics are correct, my argument is not as strong as it ought to be as
concerns America, but it still has strength. It is plenty strong enough as concerns
Austria, for ten years ago 5,000,000 was nine per cent. of the empire's population. The
Irish would govern the Kingdom of Heaven if they had a strength there like that.
I have some suspicions; I got them at second-hand, but they have remained with me these
ten or twelve years. When I read in the C. B. that the Jewish population of the United
States was 250,000, I wrote the editor, and explained to him that I was personally
acquainted with more Jews than that in my country, and that his figures were without a
doubt a misprint for 25,000,000. I also added that I was personally acquainted with that
many there; but that was only to raise his confidence in me, for it was not true.
His answer miscarried, and I never got it; but I went around talking about the matter,
and people told me they had reason to suspect that for business reasons many Jews whose
dealings were mainly with the Christians did not report themselves as Jews in the census.
It looked plausible; it looks plausible yet. Look at the city of New York; and look at
Boston, and Philadelphia, and New Orleans, and Chicago, and Cincinnati, and San Francisco
- how your race swarms in those places! - and everywhere else in America, down to the
least little village.
Read the signs on the marts of commerce and on the shops; Goldstein (gold stone),
Edelstein (precious stone), Blumenthal (flower-vale), Rosenthal (rose-vale), Veilchenduft
(violet odor), Singvogel (song-bird), Rosenzweig (rose branch), and all the amazing list
of beautiful and enviable names which Prussia and Austria glorified you with so long ago.
It is another instance of Europe's coarse and cruel persecution of your race; not that it
was coarse and cruel to outfit it with pretty and poetical names like those, but that it
was coarse and cruel to make it pay for them or else take such hideous and often indecent
names that to-day their owners never use them; or, if they do, only on official papers.
And it was the many, not the few, who got the odious names, they being too poor to
bribe the officials to grant them better ones. Now why was the race renamed? I have been
told that in Prussia it was given to using fictitious names, and often changing them, so
as to beat the tax-gatherer, escape military service, and so on; and that finally the idea
was hit upon of furnishing all the inmates of a house with one and the same surname, and
then holding the house responsible right along for those inmates, and accountable for any
disappearances that might occur; it made the Jews keep track of each other, for
self-interest's sake, and saved the government the trouble. ^*
[Footnote *: In Austria the renaming was merely done because the Jews in some
newly acquired regions had no surnames, but were mostly named Abraham and Moses, and
therefore the tax-gatherer could not tell t'other from which, and was likely to lose his
reason over the matter. The renaming was put into the hands of the War Department, and a
charming mess the graceless young lieutenants made of it. To them a Jew was of no sort of
consequence, and they labelled the race in a way to make the angels weep. As an example,
take these two: Abraham Bellyache and Schmul Godbedamned. - Culled from "Namens
Studien," by Karl Emil Franzos.]
If that explanation of how the Jews of Prussia came to be renamed is correct, if it is
true that they fictitiously registered themselves to gain certain advantages, it may
possibly be true that in America they refrain from registering themselves as Jews to fend
off the damaging prejudices of the Christian customer. I have no way of knowing whether
this notion is well founded or not. There may be other and better ways of explaining why
only that poor little 250,000 of our Jews got into the Cyclopaedia. I may, of course, be
mistaken, but I am strongly of the opinion that we have an immense Jewish population in
Point No. 5.
"Will the persecution of the Jews ever come to an end?" On the score of
religion, I think it has already come to an end. On the score of race prejudice and trade,
I have the idea that it will continue. That is, here and there in spots about the world,
where a barbarous ignorance and a sort of mere animal civilization prevail; but I do not
think that elsewhere the Jew need now stand in any fear of being robbed and raided.
Among the high civilizations he seems to be very comfortably situated indeed, and to
have more than his proportionate share of the prosperities going. It has that look in
Vienna. I suppose the race prejudice cannot be removed; but he can stand that; it is no
particular matter. By his make and ways he is substantially a foreigner wherever he may
be, and even the angels dislike a foreigner. I am using this word foreigner in the German
sense - stranger. Nearly all of us have an antipathy to a stranger, even of our own
nationality. We pile gripsacks in a vacant seat to keep him from getting it; and a dog
goes further, and does as a savage would - challenges him on the spot.
The German dictionary seems to make no distinction between a stranger and a foreigner;
in its view a stranger is a foreigner - a sound position, I think. You will always be by
ways and habits and predilections substantially strangers - foreigners - wherever you are,
and that will probably keep the race prejudice against you alive. But you were the
favorites of Heaven originally, and your manifold and unfair prosperities convince me that
you have crowded back into that snug place again.
Here is an incident that is significant. Last week in Vienna a hailstorm struck the
prodigious Central Cemetery and made wasteful destruction there. In the Christian part of
it, according to the official figures, 621 window-panes were broken; more than 900
singing-birds were killed; five great trees and many small ones were torn to shreds and
the shreds scattered far and wide by the wind; the ornamental plants and other decorations
of the graves were ruined, and more than a hundred tomb-lanterns shattered; and it took
the cemetery's whole force of 300 laborers more than three days to clear away the storm's
wreckage. In the report occurs this remark - and in its italics you can hear it grit its
Christian teeth ". . . lediglich die israelitische Abtheilung des Friedhofes vom
Hagelwetter ganzlich verschont worden war." Not a hailstone hit the Jewish
reservation! Such nepotism makes me tired.
Point No. 6.
"What has become of the Golden Rule?" It exists, it continues to sparkle, and
is well taken care of. It is Exhibit A in the Church's assets, and we pull it out every
Sunday and give it an airing. But you are not permitted to try to smuggle it into this
discussion, where it is irrelevant and would not feel at home. It is strictly religious
furniture, like an acolyte, or a contribution-plate, or any of those things. It has never
been intruded into business; and Jewish persecution is not a religious passion, it is a
To conclude. - If the statistics are right, the Jews constitute but one per cent. of
the human race. It suggests a nebulous dim puff of star-dust lost in the blaze of the
Milky Way. Properly the Jew ought hardly to be heard of; but he is heard of, has always
been heard of. He is as prominent on the planet as any other people, and his commercial
importance is extravagantly out of proportion to the smallness of his bulk. His
contributions to the world's list of great names in literature, science, art, music,
finance, medicine, and abstruse learning are also away out of proportion to the weakness
of his numbers.
He has made a marvellous fight in this world, in all the ages; and has done it with his
hands tied behind him. He could be vain of himself, and be excused for it. The Egyptian,
the Babylonian, and the Persian rose, filled the planet with sound and splendor, then
faded to dream-stuff and passed away; the Greek and the Roman followed, and made a vast
noise, and they are gone; other peoples have sprung up and held their torch high for a
time, but it burned out, and they sit in twilight now, or have vanished.
The Jew saw them all, beat them all, and is now what he always was, exhibiting no
decadence, no infirmities of age, no weakening of his parts, no slowing of his energies,
no dulling of his alert and aggressive mind. All things are mortal but the Jew; all other
forces pass, but he remains. What is the secret of his immortality?