Daniel Defoe (c. 1661-1731) was the son of a London butcher called Foe, a name
which Daniel bore for more than forty years. He early gave up the idea of becoming a
dissenting minister, and went into business. One of his earlier writings was an
"Essay upon Projects," remarkable for the number of schemes suggested in it
which have since been carried into practise. He won the approval of King William by his
"True-born Englishman," a rough verse satire repelling the attacks on William as
a foreigner. His "Shortest-Way with Dissenters," on the other hand, brought down
on him the wrath of the Tories; he was fined, imprisoned, and exposed in the pillory, with
the result that he became for the time a popular hero. While in prison he started a
newspaper, the "Review" (1704-1713), which may in certain respects be regarded
as a forerunner of the "Tatler" and "Spectator." From this time for
about fourteen years he was chiefly engaged in political journalism, not always of the
most reputable kind; and in 1719 he published the first volume of "Robinson
Crusoe," his greatest triumph in a kind of realistic fiction in which he had already
made several short essays. This was followed by a number of novels, dealing for the most
part with the lives of rogues and criminals, and including "Moll Flanders,"
"Colonel Jack," "Roxana," and "Captain Singleton." Notable
as a specially effective example of fiction disguised as truth was his "Journal of
the Plague Year."
In the latter part of his career Defoe became thoroughly discredited as a
politician, and was regarded as a mere hireling journalist. He wrote with almost
unparalleled fluency, and a complete list of his hundreds of publications will never be
made out. The specimen of his work given here show him writing vigorously and sincerely,
and belong to a period when he had not yet become a government tool.
The Education Of Women
I have often thought of it as one of the most barbarous customs in the world,
considering us as a civilized and a Christian country, that we deny the advantages of
learning to women. We reproach the sex every day with folly and impertinence; while I am
confident, had they the advantages of education equal to us, they would be guilty of less
One would wonder, indeed, how it should happen that women are conversible at all; since
they are only beholden to natural parts, for all their knowledge. Their youth is spent to
teach them to stitch and sew or make baubles. They are taught to read, indeed, and perhaps
to write their names, or so; and that is the height of a woman's education. And I would
but ask any who slight the sex for their understanding, what is a man (a gentleman, I
mean) good for, that is taught no more? I need not give instances, or examine the
character of a gentleman, with a good estate, or a good family, and with tolerable parts;
and examine what figure he makes for want of education.
The soul is placed in the body like a rough diamond; and must be polished, or the
lustre of it will never appear. And 'tis manifest, that as the rational soul distinguishes
us from brutes; so education carries on the distinction, and makes some less brutish than
others. This is too evident to need any demonstration. But why then should women be denied
the benefit of instruction? If knowledge and understanding had been useless additions to
the sex, God Almighty would never have given them capacities; for he made nothing
needless. Besides, I would ask such, What they can see in ignorance, that they should
think it a necessary ornament to a woman? or how much worse is a wise woman than a fool?
or what has the woman done to forfeit the privilege of being taught? Does she plague us
with her pride and impertinence? Why did we not let her learn, that she might have had
more wit? Shall we upbraid women with folly, when 'tis only the error of this inhuman
custom, that hindered them from being made wiser?
The capacities of women are supposed to be greater, and their senses quicker than those
of the men; and what they might be capable of being bred to, is plain from some instances
of female wit, which this age is not without. Which upbraids us with Injustice, and looks
as if we denied women the advantages of education, for fear they should vie with the men
in their improvements. . . .
[They] should be taught all sorts of breeding suitable both to their genius and
quality. And in particular, Music and Dancing; which it would be cruelty to bar the sex
of, because they are their darlings. But besides this, they should be taught languages, as
particularly French and Italian: and I would venture the injury of giving a woman more
tongues than one. They should, as a particular study, be taught all the graces of speech,
and all the necessary air of conversation; which our common education is so defective in,
that I need not expose it. They should be brought to read books, and especially history;
and so to read as to make them understand the world, and be able to know and judge of
things when they hear of them.
To such whose genius would lead them to it, I would deny no sort of learning; but the
chief thing, in general, is to cultivate the understandings of the sex, that they may be
capable of all sorts of conversation; that their parts and judgements being improved, they
may be as profitable in their conversation as they are pleasant.
Women, in my observation, have little or no difference in them, but as they are or are
not distinguished by education. Tempers, indeed, may in some degree influence them, but
the main distinguishing part is their Breeding.
The whole sex are generally quick and sharp. I believe, I may be allowed to say,
generally so: for you rarely see them lumpish and heavy, when they are children; as boys
will often be. If a woman be well bred, and taught the proper management of her natural
wit, she proves generally very sensible and retentive.
And, without partiality, a woman of sense and manners is the finest and most delicate
part of God's Creation, the glory of Her Maker, and the great instance of His singular
regard to man, His darling creature: to whom He gave the best gift either God could bestow
or man receive. And 'tis the sordidest piece of folly and ingratitude in the world, to
withhold from the sex the due lustre which the advantages of education gives to the
natural beauty of their minds.
A woman well bred and well taught, furnished with the additional accomplishments of
knowledge and behaviour, is a creature without comparison. Her society is the emblem of
sublimer enjoyments, her person is angelic, and her conversation heavenly. She is all
softness and sweetness, peace, love, wit, and delight. She is every way suitable to the
sublimest wish, and the man that has such a one to his portion, has nothing to do but to
rejoice in her, and be thankful.
On the other hand, Suppose her to be the very same woman, and rob her of the benefit of
education, and it follows
If her temper be good, want of education makes her soft and easy.
Her wit, for want of teaching, makes her impertinent and talkative.
Her knowledge, for want of judgement and experience, makes her fanciful and whimsical.
If her temper be bad, want of breeding makes her worse; and she grows haughty,
insolent, and loud.
If she be passionate, want of manners makes her a termagant and a scold, which is much
at one with Lunatic.
If she be proud, want of discretion (which still is breeding) makes her conceited,
fantastic, and ridiculous.
And from these she degenerates to be turbulent, clamorous, noisy, nasty, the devil! . .
The great distinguishing difference, which is seen in the world between men and women,
is in their education; and this is manifested by comparing it with the difference between
one man or woman, and another.
And herein it is that I take upon me to make such a bold assertion, That all the world
are mistaken in their practice about women. For I cannot think that God Almighty ever made
them so delicate, so glorious creatures; and furnished them with such charms, so agreeable
and so delightful to mankind; with souls capable of the same accomplishments with men: and
all, to be only Stewards of our Houses, Cooks, and Slaves.
Not that I am for exalting the female government in the least: but, in short, I would
have men take women for companions, and educate them to be fit for it. A woman of sense
and breeding will scorn as much to encroach upon the prerogative of man, as a man of sense
will scorn to oppress the weakness of the woman. But if the women's souls were refined and
improved by teaching, that word would be lost. To say, the weakness of the sex, as to
judgment, would be nonsense; for ignorance and folly would be no more to be found among
women than men.
I remember a passage, which I heard from a very fine woman. She had wit and capacity
enough, an extraordinary shape and face, and a great fortune: but had been cloistered up
all her time; and for fear of being stolen, had not had the liberty of being taught the
common necessary knowledge of women's affairs. And when she came to converse in the world,
her natural wit made her so sensible of the want of education, that she gave this short
reflection on herself: "I am ashamed to talk with my very maids," says she,
"for I don't know when they do right or wrong. I had more need go to school, than be
I need not enlarge on the loss the defect of education is to the sex; nor argue the
benefit of the contrary practice. 'Tis a thing will be more easily granted than remedied.
This chapter is but an Essay at the thing: and I refer the Practice to those Happy Days
(if ever they shall be) when men shall be wise enough to mend it.