Class 11: New Political Beginnings and Cluny
I. Introduction A. Last four classes looked at the Christian, classical and Germanic origins of Europe. -Three main periods Post Roman chaos Carolingian Empire Second period of dissolution B. Charlemagne's Empire was clearly an attempt at fusing a Germanic state with Roman and Christian conceptions of universal empire. But it failed. The fusing of Germanic and Christian in fact occurred much more profoundly during the following centuries. Not in wide universalistic terms, but as the population of Europe became christianized. Eventually Roman concepts of law and state were to come to the fore again, but not (only. in empire wide terms, rather in conceptions of law and authority, public and private on a local level. These ideas were to come through the influence of the church. C. But before this could come about a more stable society was needed. The period we have been looking at in the past four classes - a long period in fact - saw all the main elements of later medieval civilization present, but any synthesis reached was temporary and short-lived in face of the tremendous pressures to dissolve. D. For the next five classes we are going to look at how in the 11th and 12th centuries Europe was reborn. This was a slow process involving -the establishment of a stable life style for the great majority of people - in agriculture and village life. -Stable political powers -developments in the Church II. The Year 1000 -Use to be thought significant - people waiting for the end, then getting on with life after it didn't arrive. -Some people did go to Jerusalem for the end. -But this is an example of us looking and finding something that wasn't there - Millenarianism common in middle ages. but great changes not tied to a specific year. -Still it points to a real sea change 950-1059 Period 1050-1350 - the High Middle Ages Period of Crusades - Great Age of the Papacy Gregory VII to Boniface VIII Gothic Cathedrals - Scholasticism III. Political Stability A. Still mainly unstable Feudalism and lack of control leads to warfare B. The Reborn Empire - Ottonian Germany 1. The Five Duchies The Carolingian power fades quickly Median position in Germany compared to total dissolution in France, and Unity in England. Reaction to attacks by Magyars Large areas, but bigger than any in France 2. The Saxon Dynasty -Louis the Child dies 911 - last German Carolingian -919 Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony 3. 936-973 Otto I -Interest in Italy and imperial title - it gave prestige over the other German dukes -962 crowned emperor - beginning of German HRE -Use of the Church to govern. Otto II 973-83 married a Byzantine princess Otto III 983-1002 had his friend Gerbert made Pope Sylvester II (like Constantine's Pope. 4. Salian Dynasty 1024-1125 -Faced off against a powerful Church -Henry III 1039-1056 - most powerful monarch in Europe. C. Feudal Principalities Actually point the way to the future more than the HRE. The Ottonian HRE was important in stabilizing Germany and establishing a secure state. But the really strong monarchies of the middle ages were built on feudal foundations and became slowly national states. The HRE was always torn between its German and Roman identities. D. Castles provide means of territorial control Primitive castles -Motte (=mound. and Bailey (=outer wall. -A castle is a fortress and domestic establishment at the same time -Provide security against raids -Ability to control territory in a 25 mile radius -[Area = pr(2. = 22/7 X 625 = c. 1980 sq. miles] Induce a change in the nobility -take names from castles -Lineages E. Greater Nobles build stable states Normandy/Flanders/Aquitaine F. England 1. Edward the Confessor Well governed and stable society/Norman Influence 2. William the Conqueror Applying feudal institutions in a pure state - all land belongs to the king. Also applied lessons learnt in Normandy to an entire country. 3. 1066 an all that. 4. Domesday Book 1086 5. Henry I G. The Italian Situation -Towns survive - ones which can be defended. -Carolingians failed to establish control in Italy. Lost of competing families for power, therefore none grow strong. -Cities grow, at first under episcopal control. Genoa Pisa, Venice - all develop trade. -Italy ends up as a land of city states - unlike any other in Europe.
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© Paul Halsall, 1996.
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