Class 8: The Roman Church and Monasticism
I. Introduction A. The Formation of Latin Christendom Collapse in the West - The Dark Ages? B. The Roman Church carries classical/Christian synthesis C. Germanic Contribution - ruling class across the West II. Christianity in the West A. oikumene - Spread and Conversion of the West up to borders of Roman Empire B. Germans -Arian Goths -Conversion of the Franks -Conversion of Visigoths C. New Expansion -Ireland - Period of little expansion -Conversion from Ireland of Nth Britain -Conversion of Germans in North -Input of papacy III. The Papacy A. The Roman Church Rome and St. Peter Cult of Relics B. Leo the Great C. Gelasius Recognition of separate Church and State power cf. Islam and Byzantium D. Political Power and Infallibility E. Rome and Constantinople -Constantine -Fourth Century -Justinian -Iconoclasm F. Rome and the Barbarians -Ostrogoths -Visigoths -Franks IV. Latin Theology Different emphasis from Greek theology Less stress on nature of Trinity and Christology A. St. Jerome - The Bible/Biblicism of Latin Theology B. St. Ambrose - Church and State Concern with political aspects of life in Latin heology The state is not above moral judgment C. St. Augustine - Salvation Theory Stresses importance of the process of salvation 1. Life and Conversion North Africa/Manicheanism Conversion - Confessions 2. Influence of Neoplatonism 3. Against Pelagius Free Will and Predestination 4. Original Sin - on Sex Use of Adam and Eve story not to show free will but bondage to sin. Sin passed in Semen Sexualization of Original Sin 5. The City of God - Politics People under original sin need government -unlike early Christian resistance to Rome. Idea of two cities. V. Monasticism A. Asceticism - Ascesis = exercise related to martyrdom, Stylites B. The Desert and St. Anthony -Into desert c. 260 - i.e. before persecutions ended -St. Pachomias and the First Rule C. St. Basil D. Types of Monks -Hermits -Cenobites -vagrants wandering Holy Men VI. St. Benedict and Western Monasticism A. St. Benedict b. 480 Began in Subiaco, Went to Monte Cassino 525 B. The Rule -written c. 530 - after monastic experience based on an earlier rule. VII. Benedictine Monasticism A. Monte Cassino 525 B. Other Houses -Irish Monasticism - across Northern Europe -Gradual adoption of the Rule. -Not an Order C. Life in a Monastery 1. The Buildings -Distinct plan - around a cloister of a Benedictine Monastery vis a vis an Irish monastery. -Church/Refectory/Dormitory/Chapter House/ Cloister/Library 2. Monks -Choir Monks -Worker Monks -Oblates -Vows of Poverty, Chastity and Obedience 3. The Abbot - from `Abba' - Elected for life 4. The Office/Opus Dei Matins/Prime/Lauds/MASS/Terce/Sext/Nones/ Vespers/Compline 5. The Work The Library and Scriptorium D. Contribution of Monasticism to Western Civilization -Attraction of Monastic Life Islands of Order in a rough World -`Accidental' preservation of Culture -Economic Effects VIII. Discussion of Rule of St. Benedict Prologue use of scripture cc. 1-3 Constitution Goals? Salvation of souls - Need for a Rule cc. 4-7 Spiritual Principles Monastery is a workshop - Silence/humility twelve steps - out of original sin? cc. 8-20 Worship Split sleep/Personal prayer/`needs of nature' 150 psalms per week - standing (misericordes?. cc. 21-30 Discipline sleep - separate beds in clothes young not next to each other - fear of sex 26 - the Gestapo? Boys cc. 31-37 Household Division of labor into offices No private property - Care of the sick - social security cc. 38-47 Daily Observance Reading - No meat - 12 pt of wine - Children to be beaten cc. 48-57 Work and Outside Contacts Manual work vs. idleness - Work at prayer Going Outside a problem - Stability Guests - Tunics/Cowls cc. 58-66 Admission Stability - Oblates - Priests and monks Rule to be read often cc. 67-72 Community Spirit 69 - fear of homosexuality/particular friendships
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© Paul Halsall, 1996.
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