Dear students of prof. vinod in stat I.     See the syllabus file for midterm date

     This  file is: st1-hw.doc (stat1 homework helpful info about course content and Internet sources )

accessed at:




1)  YouTube

 - hans rosling: no more boring data: tedtalks 

2)  animations etc of panel data  shows how data can be fun if animated.  the software is apparently available



Governance indicators for a country,



1) Please go to my website undergraduate resources link and then to the syllabus at

  your free internet textbook is at

by david lane and others


3) get the hawkes learning “access code” from  they do have 24/7 live help on line chat

and download the software for statistics  ( discovering stats)

use course id  fordhamstat

download the software and check that your access code works.


4) write down the access code several places and e-mail it to yourself and perhaps a friend.  if you lose it you will have lost $70+.  you will need the access code at the time of midterm and final exam to take the web tests.  since you will not have email on the day of these exams, write the access code on a piece of paper.


5) google “r-project” and download R software for using it as a calculator.


6) subj:  e-mail seriousness:

you are warned that my e-mails to you are serious business, not to be treated as something that may be quickly read and ignored.  you should carefully read every word.  perhaps keep a record by saving it as a file somewhere.

your e-mail to me subj line: please include  (as the case may be) stSec3 depending on your section number in the subject line whenever you send e-mail to me.  also, please be sure to include your full name and e-mail address at the end of the message.  i get lots of e-mail from around the world and these basic things will help me classify your e-mail properly.


7) subj: class seating will be fixed (during the third class, if not sooner).

if you sit at the same terminal, i can remember your name more easily from a location chart and do the attendance rather quickly.  accordingly i have decided that you are required to sit at the same terminal.   



8) do “level of measurement” exercise (lesson) numbered 1.1 from “certify” mode of the software.  if you do not have your own computer, you can do the lessons at the language lab in ke b27. if and when you finish successfully  you will get an 11-character code. upon certifying any future assigned lesson from computer software, you will be given a new certification code (this is validation that you completed your certification).   it is recommended that you print and/or save to a floppy disk or thumb drive all your certification codes.  if you certify without being connected to the internet, you will have to further register this code in order to receive credit for the assigned lesson.   the date you register will be the date and time of record when we assume you did the exercise.  if you delay registering, you will likely get a lateness penalty. if the registration is not automatically done as it is supposed to (if internet connection is defective or something like that).  printouts are useful to keep to prove that you have done the computer assignment, if there are computer glitches for whatever reason on your computer or at the hawkeslearning website.

to register your certification code:

go to and log on using your access code.

Always keep an eye on your own progress report, to see if it is properly registered at their website.  The time when you register is the time when you completed it.  So check the progress report after every lesson.




PowerPoint slides:  has levels of measurement, simpson’s paradox, placebo effect etc. 


see all online text movies for chapter 1 as we cover the material in class.


computer lesson 1.1 and 1.2 are required to be done

called chapter 1 review and test might be done in class.   only top few pages are relevant for knowing different types of samples

computer lesson 1.3 deals with sampling.

including simple random sampling, cluster sampling etc.


lessons 2.1 to 2.2a (graphics) and 2.2b (histograms)  2.3 

slides 1 to 8 have freq distribution (lesson 2.1), then histograms graphs etc 

slides 3,4, 11 and 14 have freq distribution (lesson 2.1)

data display, freq dist, stem-leaf example 

has details for freq. distribution construction and then for


 in the free textbook see movies:, (chapter 2)

lessons 3.1  and 3.2a and 3.2b (applying the standard deviation) has grouped data standard deviation and chebychev's theorem.  lesson 3.3 on constructing samples gives a deeper understanding of mean and median.  constructing samples example   has mean , median, trimmed mean, mad percentiles, iqr   see also ",, " in chapter 3 of your online free textbook.  

hawkes learning lesson 3.4 has percentiles and box plots.  mean, median, mode, box-whisker plot   see the chapter 2 movie "" of your online free textbook.

do see my notes for chapters 3 and 4  has classification plus mean, mode etc for classified data, ogive plotting, etc.

check this out for weights in the dow jones industrial average.  It is price weighted, not so good! ignores dividends!

says that S&P500 index is more scientific. The weights are assigned to each stock according to their market value. If  w= weights,  x= measurements, then weighted average= S xw / S w


Your midterm may be given in two parts where  the first part will test your memory regarding jargon items. All jargon questions will be answered on traditional blue-books (worth 4%) most likely on the monday class before the webtest midterm.  You are responsible for knowing all material covered till the date of the midterm.  


Can I bring formulas to the midterm?   generally No


4.  AFTER MIDTERM RESOURCES   has probability rules  has counting rules

lesson 4.4 has additional counting rules file name is lesson4p4.doc

 online book chapter 5 deals with probability, go to the movies folder and check out, and

bayes theorem is in  has details of prob theory has events, addition rule, conditional probability, e(x), bayes thm, sd(x) for contingency tables, probabilities, bayes thm proof and examples


lesson 5.1 has discrete probality distributions e(x),  sd(x)  discusses group data mean and variance and e(x), sd(x) are conceptually similar. since the weights are probabilities when we are finding the mean and standard deviation of probability distributions where the probabilities must add up to 1, the formulas for e(x) and sd(x) when x refers to a probability distribution involve no division by sum of frequencies, Sfj.


begin probability distributions: binomial lesson 5.2 has discrete and continuous

online book chapter 5 deals with probability, go to the movies folder and check out



prob distributions, binom to hyp & normal  has e(x), discrete uniform, binomial, pascal triangle, poisson and hypergeom is binomial distribution   (r command ?binom (all lower case) is useful, for example, dbinom(x=1:4,prob=.5, size=4))


expected value and variance of a random variable around slide #40 of

compare house to buy using sharpe ratio



poisson  (R command ?dpois (all lower case) is useful the parameter is conveniently denoted by lambda in r also. for example: dpois(x=1:4,lambda=4)) is poisson


hypergeometric distribution  around slide #89  (also has uniform density)   hypergeometric

 (R command ?hyper (all lower case) is useful but notation is much different, you are selecting x while balls without replacement from an urn containing m while and n blcak balls.  big n becomes m+n, a becomes m, small n becomes k as the number of balls selected)

for permutations and combinations


normal density.   see around slide #31  has good properties of normal and standard normal

has standard normal tables

continuous probability distributions:   lesson numbers 6.1 to 6.4 (how continuous pdf differ, areas, uniform density) see uniform density problem solved near slide no. 17  has 2 solved exercises (reverse z map useful for word problems) (lesson6.1) (given z find area lessons 6.1& 6.2) (12 general q and a)

hints on doing normal dist word problems right (normal -4 to 4 set up) (lesson 6.3) (given prob find z lesson 6.4) (review normal word problems including proportions, binom approximations, etc)

online book chapter 6 deals with probability, go to the movies folder and check out,,,

 sampling distributions theory.  online book ch. 7 movies on introduction

to sampling distributions, that of mean (clt) and proportion are useful  intro to sampling distributions, clt, proportions  slide 42:why calculate mean, bias, var(xbar) decreases as n increases  has sampling distribution of mean & prop, cltheorem, types of samples  sampling dist of means norma, lesson 7.2=sampling distribution of proportions  sampling dist of means normal lesson 7.3


approximating binomial by the normal  see page 348 onward in hawkes’ text   lesson 7.4  has the steps  has an example (review normal word problems including proportions, binom approximations, etc)  sampling dist of proportions  lesson 7.2  has a review of various distributions covered in the class so far.


 Final exam Part 1 will be during the last class  Dec. 8, 2016 as a webtest on the computer software during the class.


 Part 1 of the final exam is currently set at 33% of your grade

will most likely focus on the following lessons from the hawkeslearning computer software

4.3  counting rules

5.1  discrete random variable

5.2, binomial

5.3, poisson

5.4, hypergeometric


6.2  reading the normal curve table

6.3, normal distribution word problems

6.4, find z

6.5  find t

7.2  sampling distribution proportions

7.3, sampling dist means

7.4  Approx Binom by Normal

8.1 and 8.2 Estimating proportions and means.  


Part 2 of final exam worth 8% will have one question on the Sharpe ratio, and one on  Bayes Theorem (4% each) on a day at a time scheduled by the University. Location remains unchanged (your classroom).


 midterm=25%, computer lessons 29% (deadline=midnight of the webtest), Attendance and participation 5%, webtest Part I of final=33%  on Dec. 8, 2016 and  Part 2 on the day scheduled by the university is worth 8%



Can I bring formulas to the final exam? 

The file with formulas called  “formulas1.doc” is at my website.  you can download it and bring only an unmarked clean copy of it to the exam hall.  No other formula sheet is allowed.  This formula sheet may not be the way you remember the formulas, but this is the one you are going to get.  Please prepare by comparing your formulas with mine and know that any gap will have to learned by heart.


Can I use R during the exams?  Yes, but no Internet access is allowed.