September 14, 2000 

Transparency International, stating that its Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is a valuable reminder that corruption remains widespread in very large numbers of countries, today issued the year 2000 CPI ranking 90 countries.

"Corruption takes many forms and is a universal cancer," said Peter Eigen, Chairman of Transparency International (TI), the world's leading anti-corruption organization.  The Corruption Perceptions Index, which TI first launched in 1995, ranks countries in terms of the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. The 2000 CPI is a composite index, drawing on 16 surveys from 8 independent institutions. The surveys embrace the perceptions of business people, the general public and country analysts. The surveys were undertaken over the last three years and no country is included in the CPI unless there are results from a minimum of three surveys. Dr. Eigen noted that: "The CPI 2000 should remind everyone that the fight against corruption dare not be relaxed.

TI said that the public needs to be aware of the damage wrought by corruption. It noted the Gallup International 2000 Millennium Survey, which interviewed about 57,000 people in 60 countries and found that where corruption is at its worst, disillusionment with democracy is at its highest.

New CPI is a rolling Index based on 1998-2000 data

The CPI is based on the understanding that levels of corruption are not sharply changed by short-term actions, while perceptions of corruption may fluctuate significantly based on highly visible events. TI Executive Director Jeremy Pope explained that: "The CPI is a poll of polls conducted over a period of three years. The new CPI is based on surveys for the 1998-2000 period. This multi-year approach is more accurate and realistic. The rankings fail to fully take into account the impact of recent scandals that have damaged perceptions of the integrity environment of a country, nor do the rankings tend to reflect recent efforts by governments to introduce anti-corruption reforms in their countries."

This year's CPI covers 90 countries, compared to 99 last year. Some countries had to be dropped because there was insufficient 1998-2000 data. For example, some of the surveys used in the CPI are based on international investor attitudes and if a country is widely seen to no longer interest investors, then some survey sources may drop that country in their polling. The message is clear: dropping out of the CPI for lack of data may be bad news for countries and may indicate reduced investor interest stimulated by enhanced perceptions of widespread corruption in these countries.

TI has started developing a Global Corruption Report, to be published in conjunction with the CPI and the BPI in 2001

  1. Each year TI builds its CPI on the basis of numerous opinion polls undertaken over a three-year period. The survey sources vary to some degree from one year to the next and thus it would be inaccurate to suggest that precise comparisons are valid, for example, between the 1999 CPI and the 2000 CPI.
  2. A detailed explanation of the surveys and sources and the methodologies used by TI in compiling the CPI is available in a CPI 2000 Background Paper.
  3. TI's Bribe Payers Index is fully available at TI's website at: http://www.transparency.org/documents/cpi/bps.html. Noting that the international press is increasingly reporting on bribe paying and bribe taking, TI has recently started to publish a daily set of headlines and a guide to international press articles on corruption on the front page of its website at: http://www.transparency.org/press_moni.html

 

The 2000 Corruption Perceptions Index

Country
Rank

Country

2000
CPI
Score

Surveys
Used

Standard
Deviation

High-Low Range

1

Finland

10.0

8

0.6

9.0 - 10.4

2

Denmark

9.8

9

0.8

8.6 - 10.6

3

New Zealand

9.4

8

0.8

8.1 - 10.2

Sweden

9.4

9

0.7

8.1 - 9.9

5

Canada

9.2

9

0.7

8.1 - 9.9

6

Iceland

9.1

7

1.1

7.3 - 9.9

Norway

9.1

8

0.7

7.6 - 9.5

Singapore

9.1

11

1.0

6.2 - 9.7

9

Netherlands

8.9

9

0.6

8.1 - 9.9

10

United Kingdom

8.7

9

0.6

7.3 - 9.7

11

Luxembourg

8.6

7

0.7

7.4 - 9.3

Switzerland

8.6

8

0.3

8.1 - 9.1

13

Australia

8.3

10

1.0

6.7 - 9.3

14

USA

7.8

10

0.8

6.2 - 9.2

15

Austria

7.7

8

0.7

6.2 - 8.5

Hong Kong

7.7

11

1.2

4.3 - 8.6

17

Germany

7.6

8

0.8

6.2 - 8.4

18

Chile

7.4

8

0.9

5.7 - 8.4

19

Ireland

7.2

8

1.9

2.5 - 8.5

20

Spain

7.0

8

0.7

5.9 - 8.0

21

France

6.7

9

1.0

4.3 - 7.7

22

Israel

6.6

8

1.3

4.3 - 7.9

23

Japan

6.4

11

1.3

4.3 - 7.8

Portugal

6.4

9

0.9

5.3 - 8.1

25

Belgium

6.1

9

1.3

4.3 - 8.8

26

Botswana

6.0

4

1.6

4.3 - 8.2

27

Estonia

5.7

4

1.6

4.4 - 8.1

28

Slovenia

5.5

6

1.1

4.1 - 7.3

Taiwan

5.5

11

1.4

2.5 - 7.2

30

Costa Rica

5.4

4

1.9

3.8 - 8.1

Namibia

5.4

4

0.8

4.3 - 6.1

32

Hungary

5.2

10

1.2

3.9 - 8.1

Tunisia

5.2

4

1.5

3.8 - 7.1

34

South Africa

5.0

10

0.9

3.8 - 6.6

35

Greece

4.9

8

1.7

3.7 - 8.1

36

Malaysia

4.8

11

0.6

3.8 - 5.9

37

Mauritius

4.7

5

0.8

3.9 - 5.6

Morocco

4.7

4

0.7

4.2 - 5.6

39

Italy

4.6

8

0.6

4.0 - 5.6

Jordan

4.6

5

0.8

3.8 - 5.7

41

Peru

4.4

5

0.5

3.8 - 5.0

42

Czech Republic

4.3

10

0.9

3.3 - 6.2

43

Belarus

4.1

3

0.8

3.4 - 4.9

El Salvador

4.1

4

1.7

2.1 - 6.2

Lithuania

4.1

4

0.3

3.8 - 4.4

Malawi

4.1

4

0.4

3.8 - 4.8

Poland

4.1

11

0.8

2.8 - 5.6

48

South Korea

4.0

11

0.6

3.4 - 5.6

49

Brazil

3.9

8

0.3

3.6 - 4.5

50

Turkey

3.8

8

0.8

2.1 - 4.5

51

Croatia

3.7

4

0.4

3.4 - 4.3

52

Argentina

3.5

8

0.6

3.0 - 4.5

Bulgaria

3.5

6

0.4

3.3 - 4.3

Ghana

3.5

4

0.9

2.5 - 4.7

Senegal

3.5

3

0.8

2.8 - 4.3

Slovak Republic

3.5

7

1.2

2.2 - 6.2

57

Latvia

3.4

3

1.3

2.1 - 4.4

Zambia

3.4

4

1.4

2.1 - 5.1

59

Mexico

3.3

8

0.5

2.5 - 4.1

60

Colombia

3.2

8

0.8

2.5 - 4.5

Ethiopia

3.2

3

0.8

2.5 - 3.9

Thailand

3.2

11

0.6

2.4 - 4.0

63

China

3.1

11

1.0

0.6 - 4.3

Egypt

3.1

7

0.7

2.3 - 4.1

65

Burkina Faso

3.0

3

1.0

2.5 - 4.4

Kazakhstan

3.0

4

1.2

2.1 - 4.3

Zimbabwe

3.0

7

1.5

0.6 - 4.9

68

Romania

2.9

4

1.0

2.1 - 4.3

69

India

2.8

11

0.7

2.3 - 4.3

Philippines

2.8

11

1.0

1.7 - 4.7

71

Bolivia

2.7

4

1.3

1.7 - 4.3

Côte-d'Ivoire

2.7

4

0.8

2.1 - 3.6

Venezuela

2.7

8

0.7

2.1 - 4.3

74

Ecuador

2.6

4

1.0

2.1 - 4.3

Moldova

2.6

4

0.9

1.8 - 3.8

76

Armenia

2.5

3

0.6

2.4 - 3.5

Tanzania

2.5

4

0.6

2.1 - 3.5

Vietnam

2.5

8

0.6

2.1 - 3.8

79

Uzbekistan

2.4

3

0.9

2.1 - 3.7

80

Uganda

2.3

4

0.6

2.1 - 3.5

81

Mozambique

2.2

3

0.2

2.4 - 2.7

82

Kenya

2.1

4

0.3

2.1 - 2.7

Russia

2.1

10

1.1

0.6 - 4.1

84

Cameroon

2.0

4

0.6

1.6 - 3.0

85

Angola

1.7

3

0.4

1.6 - 2.5

Indonesia

1.7

11

0.8

0.5 - 3.2

87

Azerbaijan

1.5

4

0.9

0.6 - 2.5

Ukraine

1.5

7

0.7

0.5 - 2.5

89

Yugoslavia

1.3

3

0.9

0.6 - 2.4

90

Nigeria

1.2

4

0.6

0.6 - 2.1